About Science

In this profile we deal with the sciences, which explain the 'workings' of Ju Jitsu, including anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, advice, injury prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, etc.

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Lactic Acid - Myth Busted....

By Jujitsu, 2016-02-07

This article intends to dispel the many myths perpetuated by so called experts in respect of Lactic Acid. Many, Coaches, Physiotherapists, Trainers etc., have claimed that lactic acid is responsible for all ills, making you sore, injuring your muscles, causing cramp, leading to oxygen debt etc., etc. The list goes on and on. Nothing could be further from the truth. Lactic acid is not a bad substance at all in fact it may actually be rather nice in a way, as far as metabolites are concerned. Read more....

In order to prevent being long winded it is suffice to say that lactic acid is the breakdown product of glucose and glycogen produced during glycolysis. The prefix ‘glyco’ refers to the sugar – glucose (which when strung together and stored in the muscle makes glycogen). ‘Lysis’ means the splitting or breakdown. Therefore glycolysis means the splitting or breakdown of glucose. Essentially, lactic acid is a glucose molecule split in half. Glycolysis can proceed so quickly that the formation of pyruvate far exceeds the capacity of the mitochondria to accept pyruvate into the Krebs cycle. The Krebs cycle ultimately results in the aerobic formation of ATP the primary form of cell energy. The excess pyruvate is converted into lactic acid.
You should also know that the terms lactic acid and lactate are often used interchangeably, even though they really aren’t the same compound. The lactic acid formed through glycolysis quickly releases a hydrogen ion and forms lactate.

Does lactic acid make you sore?
The belief in this is actually a myth perpetuated by the ignorant. It has been know for over 16 years that lactic acid has noting to do with delayed onset of muscle soreness. The soreness is attributed to the unaccustomed overwork of the muscle. Mechanically, the myofibrils of the muscle tear during eccentric contractions of the muscle, that when the muscle contracts as it actually lengthens. It is surprising but muscles actually do that. In fact if your body performed only concentric contractions it would never get sore.

Although concentric contractions don’t produce the damage that eccentric contractions do, concentric contractions produce more lactic acid. Now if lactic acid were so bad, wouldn’t it make more sense that concentric contractions should cause the soreness?
Approximately 75% of the lactic acid made during exercise is used as fuel and the remaining 25% is converted to glucose in the kidney and liver.

Does massage help remove lactic acid?
Many exercise Therapists claim that one way massage helps your muscles recover by enhancing the removal of lactic acid followed by a hot salty bath. There is absolutely no evidence to support this theory. Massage may make you feel good but there is no evidence to indicate that there is any change to the amounts of lactic acid in the blood before and after a massage following strenuous activity. Test have been carried out and found that mild exercise after a strenuous session is more beneficial. This doesn’t suggest that massage for sportspeople is useless, just that it has nothing to do with the evacuation of lactic acid.
Lactic acid – what is it good for?

Firstly, the accumulation of lactic acid during exercise can interfere with muscle contraction, nerve conduction and energy production which can lead to acute fatigue. This is one reason why you tire during a training session. However lactic acid is not just a by-product of energy metabolism; it’s an important energy source.

The glucose paradox hypothesis suggests that when you ingest dietary carbohydrate, instead of it entering the liver and being converted into glycogen, it may actually bypass the liver and enter the circulatory system for conversion directly in the skeletal muscle system. Alternatively, lactate can enter the body’s systems be converted into glycogen in the liver where other tissue such as the heart, liver and kidneys can use it as fuel on demand. The heart cannot function well without large amounts of lactic acid and after about 1 hour of finishing exercise there is no lactic acid left in the skeletal muscle. During the recovery, the heart demands the lactic acid for its use as a fuel.

So why this backward path for liver glycogen formation? Lactate is removed quicker from the blood than glucose which expedites the disposal of dietary carbohydrate without a tremendous insulin surge and stimulation of fat storage. Lactic acid can also be used as an important fuel or as a source for glucose and glycogen synthesis. When exercising intensely, lactic acid produced in your fast twitch fibres can actually go to a slow twitch fibre, which can then use it as fuel. Approximately 75% of the lactic acid made during exercise is used as fuel and the remaining 25% is converted to glucose in the kidney and liver. The removal of accumulated lactic acid helps avert excessively high levels and conversion of lactate into glucose, helps maintain sufficient levels of blood glucose which is very important during prolonged exercise. Additionally, during prolonged intensive exercise when the muscle demand for glucose is depleted in e.g. the legs, lactic acid can be obtained from inactive muscles, in this case the arms, chest, etc., from their glycogen stores. This lactic acid then travels to the liver to be converted into glucose to be shuttled back to the muscle via the bloodstream. In the muscle it serves as a substrate for glycogen synthesis, so even your inactive muscles play an important role in muscle recovery.

An important metabolic regulator
Since lactic acid is half the size of glucose, it penetrates cellular membranes easier. Unlike glucose, which requires insulin to help transport it across the cell membrane, lactic acid needs no hormonal support. Muscles can release large amounts of lactic acid into general circulation, where it can serve as a potential fuel source and precursor for glycogenesis. So the next time anyone tries to bamboozle you with the side effects of lactic acid, you can smile back knowingly and dispel the myths.


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Rehabilitation of Injuries

By Jujitsu, 2016-01-19

Rehabilitation is all about the process of returning back to activity in the safest and shortest time with minimal expectation of recurrence. This process involves a specific and progressive approach dependant upon the activity or goal aimed at.  Part of this process is goal setting.

Goal Setting
Getting this part of the process right is vital to success. Without it chaos and serendipity will reign. The plan may look good on paper but putting it into practice will involve some flexibility and keen observation and evaluation on the parts of both the Therapist and the Patient.

Goal setting is planning, plain and simple, although the process is not so simple. The processes of setting realistic goals or targets for patients to reach can help their progress but goals must be time based and measurable.  That is to say there must be a way of evaluating these goals and this can only be done if the goals are examined at regular intervals and there exists a measurable component in the goal e.g. How much faster can you do 25 repetitions?

Goals can be one of 3 types:

• Long Term
• Intermediate Term and
• Short Term

Long Term - Planning Ahead
Long term planning is about the future aspirations of the athlete, e.g. what target would the athlete wish to achieve in 4 years and how you will they structure a progressive approach to achieving the goal set at the end of the period. Therefore long-term goal setting tends to deal in years opposed to months. The Therapist does not normally carry out a major role in long term planning but may act as a consultant.  However in the sense of rehabilitation the long term goal will be full recovery and return to sport at the level attained prior to the injury.

Intermediate Term
Intermediate goals are perhaps best seen as stepping stones to a long term goal and are measured usually in months opposed to weeks. These goals help to keep the athlete motivated towards achieving one of their long term goal of which there can be many. Intermediate goals are good ways to check that you are on track or not. At every stage of goal setting, reflection, evaluation and planning is essential and if students are not hitting their intermediate term goals it is a good sign that:
• Perhaps the training programme is wrong or needs modified
• Then individual is not trying enough
• The goal is unattainable or unrealistic for the time scale
• The individual is injured, etc.

Short Term
Short terms goals are usually stepping stones to intermediate goals and are measured normally in weeks or even days. These goals are highly motivational and even the simplest of things can make a difference

If you can imagine a staircase, it represents different goals of varying size and magnitude. Each step may represent days, week or months and is dependent on success. There may even be, in the case of short-term goals, a number of smaller goals to achieve before achieving an intermediate goal. Perhaps an intermediate goal will be the achievement of a number of short term goals opposed to one significant event.

When planning out goals the Therapist will be very mindful of the following:

• The ability level
• Age
• Time available for training
• Numbers involved
• Facilities
• The competitive schedule or proposed grading date
• Identify individuals and groups on whom the plan is based
• The goals set
• The skills and knowledge required
• The sequence of work adopted

Remember of course that the Therapist will have the full recovery foremost in mind for the patient and the process the patient will be taken through will ultimately result in this goal.

In the early stages of injury the patient/athlete may experience pain, swelling, inflammation, and loss of function of a specific body part e.g. not able to stand on the foot due to an ankle sprain. The job of the Therapist will be initially to reduce the swelling, and help the patient athlete protect the ankle from further damage. Often therapists used strapping and bandages etc to minimise the use of the affected body part which serves to protect it during recovery.

As the patient/athlete recovers the Therapist will endeavour to encourage the patient/athlete to move the affected part initially this may be assisted by the therapist. As the patient/athlete continued to improve the Therapist will gradually increase the load on the patient/athlete by either increasing resistance or by bearing their body’s weight.

In the case of a soft tissue injury, this has the effect of re-orienting fibrous repair tissue to meet the existing tissue, thereby making a small strong scar as opposed to a diffuse weak scar. This will be crucial to those who engage in sport that require good extensibility in the affected part.



Dripping with Sweat

By Jujitsu, 2016-01-19

Why do people love to sweat? The reasons are many. Excessive sweat accumulation creates the illusion of hard work and the thought that some sweat is good, more must be better. Sweat is a natural, rather pure, and inevitable product of exercising but the effectiveness o a workout in terms of fat loss, calories burned and cardiovascular conditioning bears little relationship to how much sweat is created. What really counts is the amount and type of activity you participate in.

When you exercise, your body produces excess heat as the muscles turn fuel into energy Your skin plays a key role in keeping you cool Blood carries excess hear from deep inside your body to your skin, allowing heat to radiate from the skin's surface. This blood shun or transfer is exemplified by a red face or flushed skin on a hot day.
Meanwhile, the body perspires, dumping water on your skin. Evaporation of sweat cools the body. Through perspiration and breathing fluid and heat is lost. Because this fluid comes from blood plasma, profuse sweating reduces blood volume. As blood supply and volume decreases, the exercising skeletal muscles can perform efficiently.
This also adds strain to the heart and blood delivery system. The blood shunt from the core of the body and decreased blood volume will cause the heart to beat more times per minute to meet the exercise oxygen needs or the working skeletal muscles and heart muscle. A faster heating heart muscle needs more oxygen because it is working harder. In this high stressed situation oxygen delivery may not be able to meet the oxygen needs of the heart. The skeletal muscles that literally move you can recover from this 'oxygen debt' however the heart muscle does not have the capacity to sustain muscle contraction without act equate oxygen. The end result of overheating could be a heart attack.

Even a moderate amount of exercise can build your core temperature up to 37.5-38ºc.
To minimise sweating whilst exercising
• drink approximately 100 ml of water every 10-15 minutes
• wear loose or "breathable'' clothing.
• exercise in an environment that is well ventilated and slightly cool at the start.
The quest for attainment of "dripping wet’ status is counter-productive from a safety and calorie burned standpoint. Excessive heat exposure or dehydration results in physiological strain to the body. You may produce a lot of sweat as the body frantically tries to cool its core temperature, but you may end up exercising a shorter duration at a lower intensity and the experience may be less than fun.
Physiologists suggest that 13 degrees Celsius is the highest temperature at which you can expect to perform your best. Temperature is not the sole cause of heat problems. Heat plus humidity (partly influenced by poor ventilation) is even more dangerous. The fact remains that cool rind well ventilated environments present the best conditions for "hard cardiovascular workouts".
Classroom or "home gym" temperatures may be warmer than 13 degrees Celsius, especially in the summer months. Because of this, it is important not to further increase the temperature and humidity by turning up the thermostat closing off ventilation, or wearing excessive clothing in order to retain heat.
The key is to create an environment that is appropriate to the activity you are going to participate in. A stretching session is different than a high intensity cardiovascular or strength workout. In this case you might want a room that is 21 degrees Celsius as warm temperatures facilitate stretching anti will help to promote relaxation. In a public facility where it may not be possible to control room temperature, a cooler environment is preferable, allowing you to add/take off clothing to help regulate temperature.
Though many people can tolerate a hotter; "stuffier," higher risk environment, there are issues of liability, safety and enjoyment. Some exercisers may have undiagnosed asymptomatic heart disease or some other ailment. A situation like this puts this person at risk because of the excessive demand it places on the heart.

The answer is to lose weight. Excessively hot environments and layered clothing do promote water loss, and temporary weight loss through sweating. Like wise, plastic and rubberised suits may dangerously compromise your cooling system. You sweat excessively under them, but they don't allow evaporation and cooling to occur. Striving to "sweat! off the pounds" results only in loss of water weight which you'll replace as soon as you begin to drink fluids.

Women are generally less prolific sweaters than men. A woman's cooling system probably relies more on blood circulation to transfer heat though the skin. Then as skin and core temperatures rise, sweating kicks in. Men make greater use of evaporative cooling. While men and women handle excess heat differently, their heat tolerance is about the same. It is obvious that quantity of sweat and onset of sweating once again fails to be the "measure" for effective exercise. Too many people think. "the harder you work, the more you sweat." And, "those not sweating aren't working hard enough." The answer to these..... NO SORRY YOU’RE WRONG.
Sweating to lose weight or create a false sense about the hardness of your workout should be avoided. For years sweating has been touted as means to good health. Unfortunately, there is little, if any demonstrable relationship between sweating and improved health.

Of course not. If you work at an exercise intensity that you've progressively attained, drink lots of water before, during and after your session. Wear appropriate clothing that encourages the cooling processes of the body. Exercise in a cool and well ventilated environment if indoors, and you still end up dripping wet with sweat... "Nice workout!"

Posted in: Physiology | 0 comments


By Jujitsu, 2016-01-19

The objective of this article is to look at haemostasis viz., the arrest of bleeding from broken blood vessels which involves 3 steps:


• The first step in haemostasis is when a blood vessel is disrupted the smooth muscle surrounding the vessel constricts as a result of a response to injury and sympathetic induced vaso-constriction formation of a platelet plug. Platelets are small cells which aggregate and coagulate at the site of injury to arrest bleeding.

• Platelets do not normally adhere to vessels due to prostacylin
• When vessels are disrupted they expose collagen fibres (afibrous protein), platelets congregate at the site and begin to release the chemicals Adenosine Di-Phosphate (ADP) which cause platelet aggregation 
• Pplatelets also release chemicals called Thromboxin 2A to enhance the blood coagulation. Thromboxin catalyses fibrinogen to fibrin to form a clot only at the site of injury 
• Clot is fully developed in between 3 - 6 minutes.


• Once a clot has formed, platelets contrct within the clot and shrinks the fibrin meshwork pulling the edges of the damages vessels together.
• During clot retraction, the fluid is squeezed from the clot. This fluid is essentially plasma minus the fibrinogen and other clotting precursors and is called serum.
• A clot is a transient dance to stop bleeding until the vessel can be repaired.
• Platelets secrete a chemical partially responsible for the invasion of fibroblasts which form a scar at the site or defect.  
• When the clot is no longer required, clot retraction occurs to prevent haemmorage. The clot is dissolved by plasmin, a fibrolinic enzyme.  
• Phagocytic white blood cells remove debris and products of clot dissolution.  
The main function of the blood is to carry Oxygen (O2) to sites for Cellular respiration  and Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  to Lungs for expulsion and Wastes to the Kidneys for expulsion. Further to that it also has the function of maintaining the ph of the body maintaining the body temperature. The blood also carries electrolytes in plasma for membrane excitability and  osmotic function. The blood also has other duties viz defending the body against infection, invading disease causing cells and cancer cells.

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Exercise on the Safe Side

By Jujitsu, 2016-01-18

The general purpose of exercising is to improve specific components of your fitness. Exercise will improve heart and lung function, tone and strengthen muscles, reduce body fat and maintain spine and joint mobility. Whether you are an athlete, or a person exercising for health and fitness, the principles and philosophy are the same. Start SLOWLY, increase the intensity GRADUALLY, ensure there is a SPECIFIC reason for each exercise, workout REGULARLY (every second day) and ensure your programme is designed for QUALITY rather than quantity.

Prior to commencing any exercise programme, it is important to identify any medical or physical conditions that may be aggravated by exercise. For the majority of people, physical activity should not pose any problems, however it is recommended that you discuss any medical issues with your physician. In particular, pregnancy and osteoporosis generate many questions in relation to exercise. Even though everybody is different, awareness of the following information could prove valuable.

As the pregnancy advances, the lower back has a predisposition to arch quite significantly. Development of your abdominal muscles early in pregnancy will help counteract the strain on the vertebral column later in pregnancy.
Overstretching is also strongly advised against during pregnancy as the body releases the hormone relaxin to calm the body's ligaments hence creating high susceptibility to sprains and strains.
lying on your back if you have reached your 4th month of pregnancy, as the foetus may obstruct the blood flow to the heart. Blockage of blood flow to the foetus may also occur. In addition be aware that: exercise may cause spontaneous abortion in the first three months of pregnancy; pregnant women may also suffer from overheating and lower blood sugar levels than they normally would; and lastly consult qualified obstetric personnel before commencing your exercise programme.

Evident in approximately 30% of post menopausal women, osteoporosis is characterised by a decrease in bone mass and 'brittle' bones more susceptible to fractures. Bone loss can occur in the vertebral bodies and may lead to spinal nerve compression, possible bone fracture and the development of postural problems. The exact cause of osteoporosis is largely unknown, however research indicates that smoking, lack of calcium in diet, inactivity, extreme thinness and oestrogen deficiencies are all contributing factors.
Exercise is vital to keeping bones strong, particularly walking but one must avoid rough terrain where sprains or accidents may occur. Finally consult your doctor and dietician for hormonal and dietary advice.

An important factor of injury prevention involves being aware of any structural abnormalities. Again, these do not preclude you from exercising but may require certain modifications. Conditions such as bowed legs, knocked knees or uneven leg lengths may lead to injury over time especially with high impact activities. For example, many women who have a wide pelvis and knocked knees experience excessive rubbing and subsequent pain under the knee cap otherwise known as chondromalacia. Those with a tendency to excessively pronate (roll in at the ankle) or supinate (roll out) when running, skipping or race walking increase their risk of injury e.g. shin soreness. Weight supported or low impact activity is best. A qualified physical therapist can design a successful corrective programme for those with acute abnormalities. Alternatively, altering the cushioning of your shoes with custom-made orthotics may correct the problem

Shin splints - Nagging pains down the front of the shins - where muscle expansion during exercise is restricted by the muscle covering (sheath) and inflammation of the fibrous membrane covering the surface of the bone. Shin splints are common in high impact programmes.

Prevention - Avoid excessive toe bouncing and wear a well cushioned shoe. Complete rest and proper medical attention are the only solutions to those already suffering this ailment.
Stress incontinence - The first sign of stress incontinence is a small leakage of urine when coughing, laughing, lifting heavy objects or bouncing up and down during exercise. It may be caused by a defect or weakness in the urethral sphincter (bladder exit) or by a weak pelvic floor, which is unable to counter the inside abdominal pressure, built up during repetitious bouncy exercise.

Prevention - Five pelvic floor contractions, ten times per day, may assist in clearing this problem. These exercises can be done at any time of the day. Physiotherapists with a special interest in obstetrics will gladly help you learn pelvic floor contractions.
Insomnia - Insomnia is most prevalent in novices who exercise too vigorously, particularly close to bedtime. It is not advisable to exercise within two hours of going to bed. It takes approximately two hours for the physiological and neurological stimulation of exercise to subside - in some cases such as newcomers to exercise this process may take a little longer. The good news is that people who exercise regularly tend to sleep more soundly than the unfit.

Children and Resistance Training

By Jujitsu, 2016-01-07

Resistance training and children do not often make the best marriage for a number of reasons but as part of a sport specific programme, sometimes resistance training is an important feature.

Rather than be perscripti9ve, this article hopes to raise questions and concerns as well as provide information in order that a correct determination be made as to when and whether children should use resistance equipment.

The first questions, which will concern parents, local authorities and most facility owners, is; at what age can young people be entrusted to use resistance equipment safely and should this use be supervised?

Safety & Coaching

Resistance equipment was never build for children to use. It was manufactured with adult use in mind. It is therefore important to consider whether the apparatus is suitable for children. The inappropriateness of the equipment may lead to unnecessary long or short-term injuries (see physiological dangers). The same applies to cardiovascular equipment although treadmills are less likely to pose as much danger as resistance equipment such as free weights, racked weights and isokinetic machines.

The child must have a clearly understanding of what they require of the equipment and also be alert to the dangers of using it.  It may be questionable as to whether young children have this capacity of understanding and responsibility. During all sessions, which should be between 20 – 40 minutes, young people should be supervised to ensure that technique is properly learned and that positive attitudes are developed.  Supervision should also give some protection from the dangers of the ‘steroid scene’ which is a major concern in sport. The environment should be conducive to they child’s safety and enjoyment and send out the right signals about goals and expectations of the programme.

Children should not be expected to perform as adults. They are not mini-adults, despite how mature they behave, they are ill equipped to handle the responsibility placed on individuals using equipment in weights gyms.

All young persons should have specific goals in mind when using weights. It may be:

  •  to make gains in strength or
  •  to change their physical shape.

A properly planned and balanced programme, monitored and evaluated regularly is necessary to ensure that resistance training is effective. Young people should really not be encouraged to use this equipment without correct direction, otherwise it may be a recipe for litigation.

The use of spotters is another important issue. Spotters are individuals that assist the training person, be they child or adult. They know at what point in a technique when assistance should be given. They also know the signs of stress and fatigue and give appropriate advice accordingly.

Physiological Concerns

Coaches share the concerns regarding injuries in training children with weights. Correct programming will minimise this. It is fair to say that most injuries with coached children are due to incorrect warm up sessions that lead to muscle strain or inappropriate programmes.

Other likely injuries to young frames are:

  • Fractures particularly stress fractures and sited at the Epiphyses (growth plates).
  • Spinal problems the accentuation of any of the spines curvatures can cause a lordosis or kyphosis in the spine. Scollitic spinal injuries (twisting of the spine) can be the result of imbalances in training programmes.
  • Cartilage problems may occur with short-range repetitive movements
  • Ligament injuries are likely when the loads are excessive and joints taken beyond their normal range as a consequence. Ligaments of the joint stability and this will be compromised if the loading is too great. The mechanism of injury here can be indirect, i.e. not caused directly by the equipment but by the body’s attempts to control the load.

Perhaps a more important outcome is the behavioural development of an active lifestyle in a child’s younger years. Maturation cycles of boys and girls will differ as will growth rates. Children will therefore have different genetic potentials, which alone will determine physical differences in children.

What may be appropriate for pubescent young people will be inappropriate for prepubescent children.


Supervised training of children and the use of resistance equipment (including treadmills) is nothing new to coaches.  In the last 10 years or so it has gained acceptance and popularity among educational, medical and scientific professionals even although it remains a controversial subject.

When making a determination the answers to the following questions may give some direction:

1. Is the child physically ready to participate in weight training?
2. Does the young person understand the proper lifting technique?
3. Will there be spotters available?
4. With the spotter understand and recognised the correct parts of the technique at which they must intervene?
5. Does the equipment fit the child? Is it suitable for the use?
6. Does the child understand the safety concerns for each piece of equipment?
7. Is the programme for the child balanced with other sports e.g. cross training etc.?

Weight training for children and young persons can be safe if it is carried out properly. Yes, there are dangers and many of them can be eradicated with common sense and good coaching practice.

The following chart is a guideline offered by the Scottish Ju Jitsu Association


5 – 7 Introduce the child to basic exercises with little or no weight; develop the concept of a training session; teach exercise technique; progress from body weight callisthenics, partner training and lightly resisted exercises. Keep the volume low.
8 – 10 Gradually increase the number of exercises; practice exercise techniques for all lifts, start gradual; progressive loading of exercises, keep exercises simple, increase volume slowly; carefully monitor tolerance to exercise stress
11 – 13 Teach all basic exercise techniques; continue progressive loading of each exercise, emphasise exercise technique; introduce more advanced exercises with little or no resistance.
14 – 15 Progress to more advanced resistance exercise programmes; add sport specific components; emphasise exercise technique; increase volume.
16 years and over Entry level into adult programme after all background experience has been gained



By Jujitsu, 2016-01-07


When training the body will lose fluids. This can have a deleterious effect on the body and its systems and cause collapse.

It will be important, particularly in warm environments, or high humidity, or altitude to rehydrate effectively.

The body is set up in a way that through the digestive system, water and salts can be re-absorbed by ingested fluids. These substances are vital to support life and facilitate the function of other organs. Water unfortunately has a high surface tension and in itself is not quickly absorbed. Yet the only active way to replace water lost through dehydration is by ingestion.

We have found through science that the most effective way to increase water absorption in the body is to change its properties and make it isotonic.  This involves adding some sugar syrup to about 1% per volume which will act to hold the water within the gastrointestinal tract long enough for sufficient quantities to be absorbed.

Making an isotonic fluid.

In training you will need about 2 litres of isotonic fluid for ingestion.

Take a suitably sized jug and add 2 litres of water. Tap water is as good as bottled water. Then add approximated 1% of the total volume of sugar syrup, something like Ribena or other propriety diluting juice. The effect will be that the water will have a hint of flavour and a hint of colour. Half a teaspoon of salt into the solution will help break the tensile strength of the water molecule thereby facilitating the easy transference of fluids in the G.I. tract.

By using too much syrup, the fluid will be held in the stomach where the sugar will be broken down. This may cause a feeling of tiredness, nausea and actual sickness during training as blood is redirected to the digestive system, to digest the fluids, instead of the muscles.


Should you need any further advice on this issue, please contact 

Scottish Ju Jitsu Association
Coaching Unit
93 Douglas Street

(01382) 201601

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