History of Ju Jitsu
The history of Japan and the doctrine of the martial arts in particular don't give a definite or precise answer to this question. The Japanese national records and the many manuscripts from various schools of martial arts refer to ancient methods of combat codified long before actual records were kept. The first records are said to have been introduced sometime in the sixth century. Between the 8th and 11th century (Heian era) Japan had evolved it's political organisation, social and clan structures. Up until the 11th century Ju Jitsu was the popular system of combat for the aristocracy, the nobility and in 1156 the beginning of the feudal era saw Ju Jitsu being monopolised by the elite Bushi or samurai warriors as their training programmes. This was so until the late 19th century when the samurai class was dissolved.
The Japanese national records and the many manuscripts from various schools of martial arts refer to ancient methods of combat codified long before actual records were kept. The first records are said to have been introduced sometime in the sixth century.
Up until the 11th century Ju Jitsu was the popular system of combat for the aristocracy, the nobility and in 1156 the beginning of the feudal era saw Ju Jitsu being monopolised by the elite Bushi or samurai warriors as their training programmes. This was so until the late 19th century when the samurai class was dissolved.
During the reign of emperor Meiji was a period of restoration in Japan including the legalisation of Christianity, the dissolve of the samurai class and the opening of trading links with the western world opposed to those held by the black ships. The dissolving of the samurai class left the government with a huge problem.
Thousands of highly trained fighting men whose talents were now superfluous, twinned with the western demands for the Japanese race to become more tolerant and less barbaric in the eyes of the westerners.
Aikijujutsu schools and following the cultural wave his Schools later became Aikido. Much later the striking arts shared the same fate at the hands of Gichin Funakoshi who did for the arts of striking what Kano and Uyeshiba had done for Judo and Aikido respectively. These forms are practised worldwide today and have become almost household names. What became of the old schools; Well the old schools still survive today but in a greatly diluted form. The format known as Jujutsu has shared many names over the years viz. Wa jutsu, Taijutsu, Yawara, Kogusoku, Chikara kurabe, Hakushi, Torite, etc.
The schools of Aiki-jujutsu did not join Kano's synthesis of the 'jutsu' arts, preferring to remain independent. Morihei Uyeshiba was virtually the last representative of the ways to redirect their skills - sport was a popular choice, Sumo being particularly favoured among the biggest and strongest. Clearly the Meiji government applied all their energies and resources into the new Cultural Japan and tried to leave the shackles of the old Japan behind but this was not met without resistance.
The birth of the new Martial Ways (Budo) systems had happened and was picking up impetus in various countries of the world through the now many foreign trading connections. Just as it seemed to be gaining popularity, along came the next problem. World War 1.
The Japanese government withdrew its entire people involved in teaching the martial ways from various corners of the globe, in an attempt to avoid a politically sensitive situation. Virtually all the Europeans adept in the old ways perished during the war and the returning injured remainder had somehow lost the direction to carry on.
Then followed a difficult period of rebuilding the new budo, only to find, 20 years later war destroying this development. World War 2 was much more protracted than the proceeding war and saw the Japanese fight to the bitter end. However, once the war was over and government began allowing freer trade to industry and passage to their peoples, the development of Budo was back on track with the full support of the Japanese government.
Now, systems such as Karate, Judo, Aikido and Kendo with the official backing of the Japanese government began to flourish both in Japan and abroad. USA, Hawaii, Germany, Austria, Holland, France, South Africa, Great Britain, Philippines and Spain all shared a resurgence of interest in the Japanese methods of combat.
Many ex-servicemen returned to their home countries and started teaching a form of Judo, though many of the techniques were founded upon Jujutsu. But few had any real Knowledge of Jujutsu and even fewer were qualified to teach.
Then there is the notion that generally people usually like to take the easy way out and in stark contrast to some of the old forms, budo forms were considered by traditionalists to be the soft option. Certainly from the standpoint of marketing a combative form, the Japanese took this softer option in order to attain the acceptance of the western world.
After 50 years of development Budo systems of combat are extremely popular throughout the modern world and despite the technical differences, the old schools have too earned a degree of official acceptance in this modern world of contrasts. It is known as 'Kobudo' a label which translates to the old martial ways.
It appears from records, that Britain was the first nation to receive Japanese Jiu Jitsu instructors, but that these instructors did not come to the U.K. as Jiu Jitsu experts but as bankers, clerks, military men, students, etc.
The first to identify himself and declare his art was Takashima Shidachi (Yoshin Ryu) in April 1892 while working as the secretary to the London Branch of the Bank of Japan.
About 7 years or so later in 1899, a gentleman called W. E. Barton-Wright was due to return to the UK having been working in Yokohama for the last 9 years as an engineer. During this time he had studied Tenjin Shin’yo Ryu Jiu Jitsu with a master Yukio Tani and his brother. Just prior to his return Barton-Wright asked Tani to return with him to the U.K. and start an academy of Jiu Jitsu. The academy failed mainly because the British people had never heard of Jiu Jitsu let alone seen it.
Barton –Wright decided to tour the country showing the art of Jiu Jitsu and placed challenges to all comers to defeat the Japanese pair. During one of these circus type side shows staged at various music halls up an down the country, Yukio Tani met a Scotsman – William Bankier. Bankier was a ‘physical culturist’ and became rapidly interested in Jiu Jitsu and in 1903 persuaded Tani to leave the Barton-Wright relationship and work with him.
Bankier continued to tour with Tani much in the same way that Barton-Wright had and he introduced him to the some wrestling friends, in particular Percy Longhurst, W.H. Garrud, Bruce Sutherland and Percy Bickerdike.
The 4 set up the British Ju Jutsu Society (BJJS) and became a personal students of Tani. Sutherland introduced Jiu Jitsu to the Army, Boy Scout and Boys Brigade movements, and the Special Constabulary in Edinburgh, Scotland. Longhust introduce Jiu Jitsu to the Special Constabulary of the Metropolitan and various county Police Forces. Garrud promoted it among the wrestling fraternity. Between 1900 and 1910 Jiu Jitsu was booming……everybody wanted to learn. Articles in the ‘Health & Strength’ magazine founded by Bankier were used to boost Ju Jitsu. There were now a number of eminent Japanese masters – Uyenishi, Koizumi, Ohno, Miyake - in the U.K. some teaching the old schools of Jiu Jitsu and some the new synthesised style of Jiu-Do (which we now know as Judo).
The years of the first World War were a difficult time and much of the great impetus for Jiu Jitsu died. After the War a British Diplomatic figure, E. J. Harrison and W. E. Steers returned from Japan the first of the westerners to be graded shodan in Kodokan Judo. They both consistently campaigned for Kodokan Judo and Harrison gave the impression that Judo was just another term for Jiu Jitsu.
1920 Jigaro Kano came to London as a member of the International Olympic Committee and aligned himself to support the Budokwai – the club was opened by Koizumi in 1918 with Tani the Chief instructor. However, the pre World War 1 organisation of the BJJS (British Ju Jutsu Society) was refused recognition from the Budokwai as were many others because they refused to subjugate themselves to the directives of the Budokwai Executive.
Much politics passed, like the proverbial water beneath the bridge, until the late 1960’s. Organisations were abundant, all with differing rules and grading standards. The government’s concern was raised regards over the standards of teaching and regulation within the country. The product was a Commission, funded by the Sports Council, formed to regulate the regulatory bodies and if necessary streamline the various organisations professing the same art into one.
In the case of Ju Jitsu a number of organisations were identified and brought together to form a British Ju Jitsu Association.
The British Ju Jitsu Association has seen a number of changes since its birth and today enjoys recognition from SportEngland (formerly the Sports Council for England).
From the early days of Willam Bankier’s involvement, Scots have played a role in the development and spread of Jiu Jitsu across the country. Through his connections with Garrud’s wrestlers, Yukio Tani made himself available for contest and teaching. One eminent Scot who derived much from Tani was undefeated world middleweight champion – George Kidd. George was fascinated by the flexibility and effectiveness of the system and took a keen interest in the art.
Over the years there have been a number of claims by various Scots to have travelled either to Japan to learn Ju Jitsu or having learned from a U.K. resident master but many of these claims.
In 1977, Robert G. Ross, a Scot hailing from Dundee, contacted the Martial Arts Commission (MAC) to enquire about the new Ju Jitsu body namely the BJJA. Robert was a Constable of the Tayside Police Force and within a year or so he and his group of Ju Jitsuka had been accepted into membership of the new BJJA. The group was a separate and autonomous group not connected to the Tayside Police Force. After about 18 months of membership Robert had identified that there were 4 main clubs in Scotland and catalysed a meeting of the leaders.
This was the formation of the Scottish arm of the BJJA – the four leaders were Robert G. Ross, Ken Wright, Jim McKelvie and Jim Bryson. The organisation was named the Scottish Union of Clubs during its set-up phase thereafter to be renamed and inaugurated as the Scottish Ju Jitsu Association.
Contact was made with the Scottish Sports Council (SSC) and very soon the activity of Ju Jitsu was formally recognised in Scotland. Then came the major task of recognition of the organisation. This was no easy task and was met with some resistance from the English contingents of the BJJA who opposed the whole question of federalisation. This essentially caused a separating of ways between the BJJA and the SJJA. The SJJA continued to work with the SSC and developed the sport nationally and internationally. Application to the Scottish Sports Council was made by the SJJA for recognition as the governing body responsible for development of the sport in Scotland and interim recognition was granted while some additional work and re-structuring was carried out within the SJJA.
In 1997 a formal application was made by the Scottish Ju Jitsu Association to the Scottish Sports Council for full recognition as the governing body for Ju Jitsu in Scotland. On Wednesday 28th April 1999 sportscotland (formerly the Scottish Sports Council) granted the Scottish Ju Jitsu Association full recognition as the Scottish governing body of sport for Ju Jitsu. The road for development and change within the Scottish Ju Jitsu Association was arduous, but the Executive Officers have a stabilised the organisation capable of representing Ju Jitsu on both a National and International level. Devolution has taken place within the home countries in the UK and Scotland now has its own parliament. This places a huge responsibility on all the governing bodies of sport in Scotland to assert their position within both the UK and International Arena to facilitate the sporting determination of the people of Scotland. The SJJA have formal recognition as the governing body, it remains to be seen what role it will play within a UK context. The SJJA are not in membership of any British body and the policy of the SJJA is now and has been from inception, that an integrated and inclusive approach to Ju Jitsu clubs and organisations is vital. Federalisation should also take place within the UK to ensure a fair and equitable arrangement for clubs within the home countries. This Federalisation should involve the bringing together of all the recognised sports council governing bodies for Ju Jitsu to act as a UK 'policing' authority for the sport and a point of reference for international affairs, etc. To date this federalisation has yet to take place to bring about a fully representative and inclusive UK body. Meanwhile the SJJA conducts the affairs of the governing body in Scotland entirely and all clubs in Scotland are invited to participate in the SJJA, which now acts as an umbrella body for all styles of Ju Jitsu, to formulate the policy and shape the future of Ju Jitsu in the country. If any club or organisation in Scotland is not currently in membership of the SJJA and would like to be included, then in the first instance, contact with the SJJA Chairman would be recommended.
Anti Doping in Ju Jitsu
All athletes have the right to compete in sport knowing that they, and their competitors, are clean.
The use of performance-enhancing drugs and other doping behaviour severely damages the legitimacy of sport and undermines the integrity of clean athletes.
You can find the UK Anti-Doping Rules [www.ukad.org.uk/resources/document/uk-anti-doping-rules] here.
(1) The anti-doping rules of Scottish Ju Jitsu Association are the UK Anti-Doping Rules published by UK Anti-Doping (or its successor), as amended from time to time. Such rules shall take effect and be construed as the rules of Scottish Ju Jitsu Association.
If you are a member of Scottish Ju Jitsu Association then the anti-doping rules apply to you, regardless of what level you participate at.
The aims of this Code and WADA are to:
In the UK, Scottish Ju Jitsu Association works in partnership with UK Anti-Doping (UKAD) to prevent doping.
UKAD is the national anti-doping agency for the UK, dedicated to protecting a culture of clean sport – it achieves this through implementing education and testing programmes, gathering and developing intelligence, and prosecuting those found to have committed an Anti-Doping Rule Violation.
UKAD is responsible for ensuring sports bodies in the UK are compliant with the World Anti-Doping Code through the implementation and management of the UK’s National Anti-Doping Policy.
It is crucial that athletes check all medications are safe to take prior to use. Medications can be checked online via Global DRO.
Athletes must undertake thorough internet research of any supplement products before use – including the name of the product and the ingredients/substances listed. Information revealed as a result should be further investigated and we advise athletes to keep evidence of their search.
• Returning a positive test
All ten ADRVs apply to athletes. Only the ADRVs in bold apply to ASP.
All athletes, coaches and athlete support personnel need to make sure they have sufficient anti-doping knowledge to avoid committing an ADRV and receiving a ban from sport.
The Prohibited List
All athletes are advised to:
However, supplement risks can be reduced by:
Visit the UKAD website for further information [www.ukad.org.uk/supplements] including information on the Informed Sport [www. informed-sport.com] programme, which provides a batch-testing service for supplement products.
• International-level athletes (as defined by their International Federation) need to apply to their International Federation for a TUE
Athletes who have an existing TUE issued by UKAD do not need to reapply for a new TUE when becoming an International-Level Athlete. They should provide their International Federation with a copy of their TUE to ensure it is recognised.
Athletes listed under the ‘National’ category for their sport must apply for their TUE in advance of competing. The ‘National’ category for TUEs is defined by UKAD by sport and can be found on UKAD’s website. Only in an emergency situation or where there will be a severe impact on health should treatment begin without the necessary approval.
You can find out more about whether you need a TUE and how to apply for one (including emergency TUEs) on the UKAD website [www.ukad.org.uk/about-TUE] here.
Understand What Happens in a Test (Doping Control)
A urine test will follow these main steps:
UK Anti-Doping recommends that athletes follow their normal hydration routines if selected for testing.
Athletes can find out more about testing, including their rights and responsibilities, in the Athlete Zone [www.100percentme.co.uk] or by downloading the Clean Sport App from their app store.
Useful Links and Resources
For More Information from UKAD:
• Visit www.100percentme.co.uk If you’re an athlete
Creating a profile is simple enough. First go to the top right hand side of the Home page and click Create Profile.
Your will be prompted to create a user name, this can either be a nickname or your own name. Any vulgar entries will be deleted.
Once done, you will next enter your email address. Why do we need this, we quite bluntly its the way we will communicate with you.
Lastly you will be asked to create a password. Please create a strong password using letters, numbers and symbols. The SJJA will NEVER ask you for your password so do not share your password with anyone.
Following this the SJJA site will automatically send to your email a message to verify your address. Its as simple click the link to verify your email address. Following this verification you will be able to upload a photo and create a small bio. This will help other identify you from someone else who may have a similar name.
Good Luck...! If you need further assiatance, please contact the SJJA HQs.
There are different grades for different students namely, grades for Children are called Mon grades. Adults grades are called Kyu grades. Black belts grades are avaialble for both children and adults and are known as Dan grades.
To begin with, something loose and comfortable is recommended and if you join you may decide to invest in a Gi (white wrap over suit) to wear instead and so protect your clothes.
You will be offered the opportunity to come to the club and try some sessions and if you enjoy it, the club staff will guide you through the membership process.
Nearby Bus stop are on Lochee Road (28, 29.) and on Blackness Road (22, 23.)
The SJJA HQs is located at 93 Douglas Street, Dundee DD1 5AZ. It's fairly central within the City near to the Westport within walking distance from both the train and bus stations (approx 10 mins).